Aspidistra Ker Gawler (1822: 628) is a large genus of herb plants growing in tropical forests of SE Asia. The number of species in genus rapidly increased during a few last decades (Tillich 2005). Currently the genus comprises more than 130 species (Averyanov & Tillich 2014b) inhabiting China, India, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Thailand (Blume 1834, Hooker 1892, De Wilde & Vogel 2005, Tillich 2005, Phonsena & De Wilde 2010, Averyanov & Tillich 2014b, Vislobokov et al. 2014b), and at least 48 species in Vietnam (Averyanov & Tillich 2014a, 2014b, Tillich 2014, Vislobokov et al. 2014c). Also a few species known from Tam Dao National Park in northern Vietnam (Tillich 2005). So A. bicolor Tillich (2005: 317) and A. subrotata Wan & Huang (1987: 223) var. crassinervis Tillich (2005: 322) Phonsena in Phonsena & De Wilde (2010: 53) were described by H.-J. Tillich from specimens collected by J. Bogner from northeastern side of Tam Dao ridge (Thai Nguyen province). N.N. Arnautov (2002) found in the same part of Tam Dao (Thai Nguyen province) plants which he recognized as A. hainanensis Chun & How (1977: 533), but later H.-J. Tillich (2005) considered it as A. carnosa Tillich (2005: 318).
Considering the extremely high diversity of flower morphology, Aspidistra is interesting for investigation of flowering biology and pollination system (Tillich 2005, Vislobokov et al. 2013, Vislobokov 2014). Some studies show that flowers of Aspidistra are pollinated by tiny soil invertebrates (Kato 1995, Conran & Bradbury 2007). According to recent investigations myiophily occurs in some species of Aspidistra (Vislobokov et al. 2013, 2014a).
Application of methods of molecular phylogeny is still unsuccessful for Aspidistra (Kocyan & Renner 2007), despite high flower diversity within the genus. Otherwise a potentially useful tool for identification of plant material is molecular barcoding (e.g., Filipowicz 2012, Gonzalez Gutierrez et al. 2013). Two DNA regions (plastidpsbA-trnH region and the nuclear 5S-NTS region) were tested for barcoding in Aspidistra (Vislobokov et al. 2014b, 2014c). These regions were found useful at a specific level in other angiosperms (e.g. Pornpongrungrueng et al. 2009, Degtjareva et al. 2012).
In the present paper two new species of Aspidistra are described from northern Vietnam and molecular diagnoses of new species are provided in comparison with other species of Aspidistra for which molecular data are available.
Material and Methods
The new species were collected during field work in Vinh Phuc province of Vietnam. Living plants, herbarium, and liquid material were collected in November 2014. Fixed material of reproductive structures was collected in 70% ethanol. Living plants from type locality were also studied in cultivation (N.A. Vislobokov TD14AC01 for A. clausa; N.A. Vislobokov TD14AH01 for A. triradiata). In the morphological description, mean values are given in square brackets after ranges of variation of quantitative characters. These data are based on 7-12 measurements of leaf characters, 3-11 measurements of floral and fruit characters.
The psbA-trnH and 5S-NTS sequences of two new species were generated (see Appendix) and added to the already existing alignment of Vislobokov et al. (2014b, 2014c). The methods used to obtain the psbA-trnH and 5S- NTS regions have been described previously (Vislobokov et al. 2014b).
Aspidistra clausa N.Vislobokov sp. nov.
Type:—VIETNAM, Vinh Phuc province, Tam Dao district, Tam Dao National Park, about 3 km NW from Tam Dao City. 21° 28,405’ N, 105° 38,351’ E, alt. 978 m, rainforest, 19 November 2014, N.A. Vislobokov 14097(holotype MW!, including reproductive organs in liquid collection at Moscow University).
Aspidistra clausa N.Vislobokov
a, d. flowers, top view; b. longitudinal section of flower, style cross-dissected; c. longitudinal section of flower;
e, f. flowering plant; g. flower, side view; h. flower, view from below; j. rhizome with fruit.
(Images b, d, e provided by Olivier Colin).
Etymology:—The specific epithet “clausa” means “closed”, it explains the structure of flowers where stamens are hidden by tepal appendages. In flowers of the similar species A. crassifila Liu & Peng in Lin et al. (2013: 43) stamens are visible from above between adaxial surface of perigone tube and margin of stigma
Distribution:—The species is known only from the type locality.
Taxonomic relationships:—The new species resembles and probably closely relates to A. crassifila but differs in width of leaf blade (2.8-4.5 cm vs. 6-12 cm), perigone tube wide tubular vs. campanulate, appendages longer, filaments and connectives white with purple spots vs. completely purple, stigma conical vs. mushroom-shaped. Also flowers of A. clausa are somewhat similar to flowers of A. patentiloba Wan & Lu (1989: 99), but strongly differ in stigma shape and should not be considered as closely related species
Aspidistra triradiata N.Vislobokov sp.nov.
Aspidistra triradiata N.Vislobokov
a, b. flowers, top view; c, d. stigma, top view (c) and view from below (d); e, f. longitudinal section of flower;
g. pistil, side view, perigone removed; h. flower, side view; i, j. flowers on rhizome of flowering plant;
k. rhizome with bases of leaves, leaves removed; l. flowering plant.
Type:—VIETNAM, Vinh Phuc province, Tam Dao district, Tam Dao National Park, about 6 km NW from Tam Dao City. 21° 29,942’ N, 105° 36,973’ E, alt. 1208 m, rainforest, 19 November 2014, N.A. Vislobokov 14098 (holotype, MW!), including reproductive organs
in liquid collection at Moscow University.
Etymology:—The specific epithet refers to the color pattern of stigma which includes three radial bright purple lines.
Distribution: —The species is known only from the type locality.
Taxonomic relationships:—The new species resembles and closely relates to the A. hainanensis complex mentioned by Tillich & Averyanov (2012). The complex includes SE Asian Aspidistra species with oblanceolate to lineate, tufted leaves and trimerous flowers, e.g. A. caespitosa Pei (1939: 101), .A. larutensis De Wilde & Vogel (2005: 126), A. linearifolia Wan & Huang (1987: 220), A. lingchuanensis Lin & Guo in Guo et al. (2015: 86), A. minutiflora Stapf (1903: 113), A. yingjiangensis Peng (1989: 173). However, A. triradiata shows a number of peculiar character- states, i.e. clearly urceolate perigone tube, 4 verrucose keels, verrucose adaxial surfaces of tepals and tube, and peculiar color patterns of perigone and stigma.
NIKOLAY A. VISLOBOKOV
Department of higher plants, Faculty of Biology, M.V Lomonosov Moscow State University, 1-12, Leninskie Gory, 119234 Moscow, Russia
Joint Russian-Vietnamese Tropical Scientific and Technological Center, CauGiay, Hanoi, Vietnam